Providing news and views from a broadcast engineers perspective since September 1986
Finally!! I get to say welcome to SPRING! Since we last met here amount a month ago, I’ve had a lot to write about in the Weather Department….and some pictures to share too.
February 2019 has gone in the record books as one of the coldest this area has seen in the last 30 years. Seattle just had its coldest February in 30 years.
The average temperature at Sea-Tac Airport in February was 36.6 degrees, making it Sea-Tac’s third coldest February on record. It came within 0.3 degrees of the second coldest February on record, which was back in 1989. The coldest February was in 1956 when average temperatures at Sea-Tac hit 35.6 degrees.
It was not just colder than normal in the Seattle area, but all over the Northwest, as the following map makes clear. As you can see, Seattle was 6.8 degrees below normal. But look at Great Falls. They were almost 28 degrees below normal. I have a friend that’s lived in Anaconda for many years. He said he’s never seen it like this.
What made this so unusual was the fact that we had some snow….and then some more snow on top of that. This is very unusual for normally mild Western Washington.
Many experienced having to shovel their driveway. Perhaps not to the extent that Dwight Small, K7KG, had to deal with. He assures us that he did this by hand. Yes, that’s the same Toyota 4×4 that I used to drive.
During weather like this, we expect that travel to the broadcast facilities at West Tiger to be difficult…and they were. Travel was restricted to ‘over the snow’ machines. Cougar Mt., about half as high as West Tiger, got at least a foot of the white-stuff, limiting access significantly. Tim Moore, transmitter Poohbah for Sinclair, discovered just how icy it was trying to reach the gate access code box on Cougar…the hard way. He’s OK.
The bad weather, snow and ice, caught up with me as I was just leaving a restaurant in Auburn on Feb. 6th with Mike Gilbert and Ben Dawson. My feet went up, and I went down (hard), landing on my back and head. The result was 13 stitches, a very bad concussion and nearly two months of dealing with vertigo.
Here are a couple of winter pictures. First, the Accelnet Tower Cam on March 10th on West Tiger at sunrise. The tracks are from snow machines.
And this one, from my Camera, taken of a sunset from Cougar Mt. If you look between the trees on the left you can see the buildings of downtown Seattle.
On March 6th, someone plowed part of the road up West Tiger. Terry and Caleb checked it out. Unfortunately they had to walk the rest of the way, about 2.5 miles. Terry said it had been a month since he was able to reach his transmitter at West Tiger-2. Unfortunately, no one plows the road to the top of the mountain for us.
We are not the only place in the country where winter weather demonstrated who’s boss. In this case, wind had its way with a tower on Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine.
To give some perspective, here is what it looked like before:
Sugarloaf Mountain’s elevation is 4,259. That’s 1300 feet higher than West Tiger. Can you imagine if this happened to one of those big towers that adorn the hills of Seattle? Not likely, as at that elevation the tower had collected a large load of Rime Ice and then was hit with winds of over 100 mph.
After this failure, Wayne Davidson posted some interesting comments. So who is he? Wayne did a lot of design work for Magnum Tower Company. It was through them that I worked with him back in the late 1980’s, on the first broadcast tower on West Tiger. Thankfully it is still standing! After reading his comments, I reached out to him and asked permission to re-print what he posted. This provides a very interesting perspective to these towers that are vital to the role of broadcasters everywhere.
For those who think towers are forever…
Just want to add my two cents worth regarding tower longevity.
Nothing that man designs or builds lasts forever – not even the Egyptian Pyramids. Having said that, man has managed to build some structures (towers) that will last a very, very long time.
All towers are not created equal. I have designed somewhere on the order of 3500 towers and poles during my career. Many towers were designed to withstand environmental conditions (wind and ice combinations) which are never expected to occur – not ever. I have designed numerous towers of that type – mostly for state agencies, local municipalities, and large corporations that have very deep pockets and for which the failure of the tower is known to have extremely dire consequences.
Those structures are designed as major communication trunks which must remain operational following catastrophic natural disasters such as earthquakes and extreme wind storms (so extreme that they are quite unimaginable given the site at which they are constructed). My expectation is that those towers will survive until their usefulness has expired and they are finally dismantled.
Many private broadcast tower owners have also taken the potential failure of their towers very seriously. Extreme design criteria was used that by far exceeds the minimum requirements to obtain a building permit. Several examples come to mind:
1) KSL’s tower near Salt Lake City,
2) a 180-foot self-support tower at Shasta Bally, CA (designed for 3 inches of radial ice concurrent with 12 inches of rime ice at full design wind),
3) an AM multi-tower array at Vashon Island in Puget Sound (150 MPH EIA C winds),
4) a self-supporting tower in Slide Mountain near Lake Tahoe. Those towers should last indefinitely with proper maintenance.
Probably the most famous example of a tower that has a very long life expectancy is the Eiffel Tower. It was designed using the math-graphical method in which the shape of the tower was determined by the geometry required to keep its composite legs in compression (no tension allowed). It was also designed for a wind force shape factor of 2 at a time when most structures utilized a force factor of 1.5. Bear in mind that the Eiffel Tower was only supposed to remain for 20 years after which time the tower was to be demolished. There was great opposition to its original construction. Today, it is recognized worldwide as a tremendous leap forward in man’s engineering capabilities and is considered a great thing of beauty.
By the way, the Shasta Bally tower was subjected to an ice and wind condition that by far exceeded its extreme design criteria. I have a couple of photos showing the tower completely filled solid with ice and with about 15 feet of rime ice projecting off of one face. That condition alone would be enough to collapse most towers in existence. Some very high winds came along during that ice event to really ‘test its mettle’. The tower is still standing.
The interesting thing is that the cost of building some very serious longevity into a tower is not proportional to its life expectancy. That is to say, a 50 percent increase in structural capacity is purchased at far less than 50 percent increase in cost. One can generally make substantial strength and capacity gains with very little additional capital investment. Moreover, stochastic probabilities of extreme wind and ice events are non-linear. For wind, it only takes a 7-percent increase in basic wind speed to move from a 50-year to a 100-year mean recurrence interval. That is primarily why our building codes and standards are becoming more and more demanding in terms of design criteria. There is minimal cost associated with providing an ever-wider margin of safety. If that cost was substantial, then we would not tolerate it and we would “throw the bums out” (meaning those individuals responsible for making construction economically infeasible).
One of my clients coined the phrase: “Where there’s a will, there’s a Wayne.” I like to think that we humans can do almost anything – if we put our minds and enough resources to it. We managed to land several men on the moon, and miraculously brought them home safely. Eventually, my guess is that building codes and standards will become sufficiently demanding that tower failures will become an extremely rare occurrence. We are almost at that point now.
Wayne Davidson, PE CE SE
Then, what seemed like a couple of days…everything changed completely and we had a dose of summer. On March 11th we were all basking in the 70’s (with so rapidly melting snow sitting in large parking lots). By Tuesday the 12th we’d broken another record with a 79. Records were set again – the warmest winter day and the earliest day to hit 74 – ever! The 79 was the hottest November to March day since they’ve been keeping records in 1894. The previous record was a 63 from 1951. Those few days of summer were soon replaced with normals in the 50’s and rain drops. Likely summer will return, right after the thunderstorm on the 4th of July.
As we moved later into March, warmer weather in other parts of the country has been melting all their snow, creating massive flooding. Here in our area, we can, and have had, flooding from rapid warming and snow melt too, thankfully, not yet. What we have been having, of late, is wildfires here in Western Washington. This due to our abnormally cold and dry weather. Fingers are crossed as our fire season approaches.
We get a lot of razzing about our weather in these parts. The following story is one that got my attention. Carefully note that this one comes from a Washington DC TV Station! Feel free to use this one on your friends. (Fact is, there are a lot of places in the U.S. that get more rain than we do, proving that ‘urban legends’ don’t have to be based on fact.)
It’s a contest we don’t want to win, but Washington, D.C. is actually wetter than Seattle, Wash!
Of course, Seattle is the city many think of when it rains – locals consider it a badge of honor to not carry an umbrella, for example – but when it comes to actual inches of rain falling, DC has them beat.
On average, Seattle measures 37.49 inches of rainfall a year, while D.C. measures 39.74.
© Getty Images/WUSA Seattle vs Washington Rain Games
We had a record setting 66.28 inches of rain in 2018, while Seattle had 35.73. In 2018, Seattle saw 157 days with measurable precipitation (0.01 inches or more), while D.C. saw only 131.
The real difference here was the number of days with at least 1 inch of rain.
Seattle only did that five days in 2018, while D.C. managed that feat on 24 days…almost five times what Seattle saw.
The colder Pacific Ocean and associated atmosphere in the Pacific Northwest just doesn’t hold as much moisture as the warmer, sometimes tropical atmosphere that D.C. sees helped by The Gulf Of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean.
Well…enough of weather…on to other stuff –
There was a recent story aired by a Russian broadcaster where a number of locations were spelled out for attack should our two countries get into a nuclear war. To the surprise of many, one of them named was the Jim Creek radio transmitter near Arlington. Reportedly that facility is used to communicate with US Naval Submarines. This news caught a number off-guard.
I recall, many years ago, getting a tour of Jim Creek. It was part of the old ‘Skagit’ Hamfest (now I am dating myself). The site is impressive, covering almost 5000 acres. Towers holding antennas between two ridgetops…and a big transmitter. The place has been in operation since the 1950’s. If you go looking for it on a map, it’s a few miles south of Oso, location of the huge land-slide of a few years ago.
Despite many calling it foolish, unneeded, wasteful, etc., HD Radio continues to grow with now some 2600 radio stations operating the mode all over North America. Mexico, is apparently, rapidly embracing HD Radio.
By now you are likely used to PDT (Pacific DAYLIGHT Time). Once again there are calls for stopping the twice a year clock shifting. A UW professor has come up with a number of reasons why we should switch to Daylight Time year around. In fact the State legislature is considering it.
Once again, the Radio Numbers are out for Seattle-Tacoma market #12. Here are the highlights from my perspective:
- KUOW again has proved that a non-commercial station that does not play music can be a huge factor. This time around they did it with an 8.0 besting the #2 rated station KQMV, who had a 6.8 (they do play music).
- Right behind, in #3 is KIRO-FM (Hard to believe that I worked there when it was in Tacoma and the call letters were KTNT-FM).
- In #4 is KSWD (The Sound) which, not long ago was long running country station KMPS. Appears that Entercom figured they already had a country property (The Wolf). They looked at the long running success of ‘Warm 106.9’ programming AC and decided that’s where they wanted to be. With their 5.1 and KRWM at a 4.0, they should be happy.
- In the battle for the country music listener, Hubbard jumped into the fray with their 98.9, now re-branded as ‘The Bull’. Appears that here too that KKWF is winning this one with a 5th place finish 4.5 compared to KNUC’s 2.8.
- Sinclair Radio’s KOMO is the clear winner on the AM dial, even if you have to look at 15th place to find them. Actually their numbers are improving. The same cannot be said for the next ranked AM, KIRO, whose numbers are descending. Perhaps a factor of the end of football season. Now if the M’s do well this year. Interesting that KIRO and KTTH are tied.
- In the Non-Commercial world, KNKX and KING are holding steady, however still way behind KUOW.
- Appears that streaming is increasingly catching on with both KISW and KSWD showing some results.
One of my favorite topics to write about in this column has been HD Radio. This is perhaps because I was involved with the first on-air test of this mode many years ago when the NAB Radio Show was in Seattle. After this I was involved with the installation of this new technology at several stations. The following was recently brought to my attention:
The writer is spot-on with his comments.
What he fails to mention is the fear that many stations have, that by promoting their own HD Channels it will syphon listeners away from their parent FM, and this will reduce their ‘numbers’ and from that – income, bonuses etc. There are many broadcasters that feel HD Radio is a total waste of time and money, for the simple reason that installation of the equipment does not mean instant return on their investment. Some are even willing to call HD ‘Self-Destruction’. Perhaps this explains why you don’t hear much promotion, or self-promotion of HD Radio?
I recall when we were introducing HD. Managers were salivating over the thought that they were getting another radio station to add to their stable without having to go out and buy one. Slowly times are changing. What many don’t understand is that the progress of HD Radio is often hindered by the very companies that own them, ie, an ‘internal-problem’. Being an ‘old-guy’ I recall hearing the same arguments, many years ago. The comments then were being made by owners and managers of AM stations talking about that mode called FM! Looking back, Radio feared TV, owners of the livery stable feared the automobile…and so it goes.
With Pirate/unlicensed radio broadcasting continuing to be an issue – Congress has passed a bill that would increase the fines to $2 mega-bucks. It would raise fines to $10,000 per violation and to $100,000 per day per violation up to $2,000,000. Adding to this, the FCC would be required to sweeps in the major cities where this has been a problem. My thinking is that this is all well and good. However, it’s been shown that a lot of these guys have very little assets and manage to get out of paying. Not sure how a huge fine is going to do the trick. Think of repeat offenders for speeding. Police can take away their license…but they still drive. Take away their equipment and they go out and find another Junker and speed some more. Sure, I’m on the side of curbing the problem, but remain unconvinced that huge fines are the answer. Time will tell.
Over the years, readers of this column often read about broadcast operations on mountain-tops. I related this information for a couple of reasons. 1) This is primarily what I do, and 2) It’s an aspect of Broadcasting that is often never seen or understood. The fact is, the majority of those who work in Radio or TV have never been to the stations transmitter location!
Generally the work of a Broadcast Engineer at these sites, contrary to popular opinion, does not involve climbing towers, but rather the maintaining of the various electronic systems that are housed in the building nearby. There can be some aspects of this work that are dangerous, as you are occasionally, called upon to deal with high voltages, climb ladders (inside), deal with sharp objects etc. Very seldom do you hear of someone being killed in this work.
That changed on March 1st this year when I received the following email from Adrienne Abbott who lives and works in the Reno Nevada area:
It is with a great, personal sense of sadness that I report the deaths of two of Northern Nevada’s best broadcast engineers. The Nevada Broadcasters Association website released their names Friday (3/1/2019) evening:
“Nevada’s Broadcasting industry is with heavy heart as we mourn the loss of two iconic figures, Herb Primosch and John Finkbohner. Our thoughts and prayers are with their immediate and broadcast families and friends. May you find strength through this very difficult time. Herb and John, you will forever be remembered.”
These two gentlemen represented the best and highest commitment of a broadcaster, serving their community. At the time of their deaths, they were working at a translator/transmitter site called Peavine Mountain, for the Verdi TV District, attempting to restore over-the-air service to the Verdi, Nevada community. At this time, it appears that they died sometime Thursday (2/28/2019). They were discovered by Deputies when they did not return as expected. The exact cause of their deaths has not yet been determined.
On March 23rd, while writing portions of this column, I received an email from Steven Allen informing me that Jim Tharp had passed away. All I know, at this point, is that he was in Vashon Community Care after a fall a couple of months ago. Obviously the news of the passing of a fellow co-worker hits hard. Just as I have made the original broadcast site on West Tiger ‘my baby’, Jim was long attached to the (KING-AM)1090 facility on Vashon. It was ‘his baby’ for many years. Jim and I worked together on many projects during the years that Entercom owned 710 and 770 AM on Vashon, including the moving of 100.7 to West Tiger and the construction of the, then Entercom, facility on Cougar. He lost his wife several years ago, and to the best my knowledge lived alone on the Island.
Having spent my entire life in a vocation where science was a foundation, I found this quote from a very famous person to be ‘spot-on’:
“We live in a society exquisitely dependent on science and technology, in which hardly anyone knows anything about science and technology.”
– Carl Sagan
Another place where I have spent a great deal of my life in the area of broadcast station participation is Public Warnings. For the last several years I have been working with Greg Cooke at the FCC. On Feb. 27 – I received this announcement:
Subject: [EAS] FCC EAS Office changes
To: “The EAS Forum” <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: Wednesday, February 27, 2019, 10:54 AM
After 15+ years in the PSHSB FCC EAS office, Greg Cooke is moving to a different position within FCC on April 1, 2019.
He is being promoted to Division Chief of the Intergovernmental Affairs Office.
Our new main EAS POC until a replacement for Greg is named is:
Elizabeth Cuttner, Attorney Advisor, PSHSB Elizabeth.Cuttner@fcc.gov, 202-418-2145
Elizabeth says a secondary contact for EAS matters is:
Linda Pintro, Attorney Advisor, PSHSB
Unrelated to Greg’s move, Austin Randazzo who was formerly in the FCC EAS office, has now also received a promotion.
Austin is Division Chief of Cybersecurity Communications Reliability.
Although no longer a primary EAS contact, he will continue to work on databases like DIRS, ETRS, and the forthcoming ARS.
Many of our friends and co-workers will be heading to the Big Show in the Desert in early April. I gave the matter some serious thought, but concluded after my recent head-injury, the Oregon Coast was a better choice.
NAB just put out the word that they are going to alter the long standing Monday through Thursday schedule for the ‘big-show’ starting in 2020. Apparently responding to the fact that the show floor is pretty quiet on Thursday. The new schedule will be moved up a day to become Sunday through Wednesday, with exhibits opening at Noon on Sunday. This should not cause a huge problem for historic Sunday events. The SBE Board Meeting and the popular Nautel NUG event have been on Sunday Morning. The Public Radio Conference runs up against the traditional opening too.
Occasionally people come up with some clever/unique names for their company that’s licensee of a broadcast station. Case in point, KMEH-LP in Helena, MT is owned by ‘Montana Ethical Hackers’.
A term that used to be confined to a ‘delivery room’ is now common place, as related to Pay TV subscribers. People today are ‘cutting the cord’ (meaning the coax cable) in record numbers. Many are doing (horrors) without Pay TV altogether in favor of services like Hulu, Netflix or services provided by Amazon. Satellite TV providers Direct TV and Dish Network suffered the bulk of the losses. Recently I was in a Costco store where they have someone stationed to promote Satellite TV. I overhead the person they were pitching try to explain that he has all the free TV he wanted or needed by using an Antenna. I’m not sure the person doing the pitching understood.
Every once in a while someone I have worked with over the years many times, is honored. In this case, The Association of Public Radio Engineers is honoring Jeff Welton from Nautel. The ceremony will take place at the Public Radio Engineering Conference (just prior to NAB) in Las Vegas on April 5th.
I don’t mind stating that this award is ‘spot-on’. Jeff is exceedingly knowledgeable and helpful. Way to go Jeff!! For those that have not had the pleasure of working with him, here is his Bio:
Jeff Welton has been with Nautel for over 28 years, the first 17 of which were spent in field service and technical support positions, as well as assisting Engineering with design review of new products and improvement of existing systems. Since moving to Sales in 2007, Jeff keeps finding ways to get his hands dirty and can frequently be found assisting in the install of a transmitter he’s sold, as well as performing several site inspections every year, along with the occasional repair.
Recipient of the SBE’s James C. Wulliman Educator of the Year Award for 2018, Jeff writes articles and performs presentations every year on the topics of lightning protection, grounding, transmitter site safety and various other subjects of interest in the broadcast engineering field, as well as being a contributor to the 11th edition, NAB Engineering Handbook, authoring the chapter on Facility Grounding Practice and Lightning Protection, among others.
If you have been involved with Emergency Communications, perhaps via Amateur Radio, be advised that Communications Academy 2019, will be held at the South Seattle College campus, Seattle, WA, on April 13 and 14, 2019 this year. The event is two days of training and information on various aspects of emergency communications. Amateur Radio Emergency Services (ARES©), Auxiliary Communications Service (ACS), EOC Support Teams, Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES), Civil Air Patrol, Coast Guard Auxiliary, REACT, CERT and anyone interested in emergency communications should attend. Learn, network, and share your experiences with others. Further information regarding the event can be found here:
There are certainly job opportunities for Radio Broadcast Engineers from time to time. Perhaps you don’t have a clear picture of what’s involved. The following will give you a good idea of what’s expected to work in this field:
Alpha Media – Alaska is seeking an experienced Staff Engineer for our radio facilities in Anchorage and Wasilla. Reporting to the Market Manager will be responsible for the maintenance of equipment, maintaining broadcast systems and technologies, build out projects, and ensure FCC compliance. The successful candidate will be familiar with radio related technologies including, but not limited to, networking and IT, PC/software maintenance and repair, AM and FM transmitter repair and installation, VHF and UHF radio technology, digital and analog audio, EAS equipment and studio equipment maintenance.
Headquartered in Portland, Oregon, Alpha Media operates 207 radio stations within 45 markets across the United States covering all formats.
Responsibilities for this position may include:
· Maintain and repair all technical and electronic equipment at the studios and transmitter sites with a proactive approach to problem solving.
· Install, monitor and perform maintenance on control consoles, audio routers, recording equipment, microphones, digital audio systems, transmitters, antenna systems, meters, control systems, and remote equipment, including accurate record keeping.
· Maintain, troubleshoot, and repair local computer infrastructure to include local area network, on-air automation system, and office workstations.
· Assist with, as necessary, the technical needs at remote broadcasts and live performances.
· Interact with management and staff at all levels in a personable, professional manner.
· Other duties as assigned by the Market Manager.
Requirements of this position include the following:
· Knowledge of all applicable FCC rules and regulations.
· Experience in computer based broadcast automation.
· Experience with cluster-wide studio equipment and operations, audio routing and distribution of analog, digital and audio-over-IP protocols, EAS, satellite receivers, studio telephones and broadcast IT systems.
· Proficiency in basic electronics theory and principles including Ohms law and the ability to read schematics.
· Ability to use test equipment, i.e. Multi-meters, Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, and field strength meters in troubleshooting.
· Ability to work independently to troubleshoot and repair high-power AM and FM transmitting facilities including troubleshooting down to the component level when practical.
· Knowledge of telephone systems and protocols including POTS, ISDN, T1, DSL, VoIP and PRI circuits.
· Knowledge of building systems, HVAC, electrical, UPS, and standby generators.
· Possess IT skills including PC/server troubleshooting and repair as well as knowledge of TCP/IP, UDP and local area networking.
· Proven ability to communicate technical information and interact easily with all levels of staff.
· Current SBE membership.
· Able to be on-call after hours for emergencies or routine maintenance as needed.
· Must possess a valid driver’s license and current vehicle insurance.
· Must be 21 years of age or older.
Preference may be given to candidates who have the above experience plus the following:
· Experience with NexGen Automation for Radio.
· Experience with Directional AM Systems.
· Knowledge of telephone systems and cellular.
· SBE, Microsoft, and CompTIA Certifications.
· Associates or Technical Degree in Broadcast Engineering Technology or related field or an equivalent combination of education and work experience.
· Ability to lift and/or move loads up to 50 lbs.
· Ability to climb ladders and work on elevated surfaces.
If you feel you are a qualified candidate and want to join a fast moving, growing entity submit your cover letter and resume ASAP by clicking the Apply button at
If a warmer climate is more your cup of tea, Entercom has an opening for their 6 station cluster in Sacramento. Check out
I recently overheard a person use the term, “Pick up the phone”. Got to thinking how many are among us that, upon hearing that, would have a different response than older generations would expect. Here are some other ‘telephone terms’ from the past that today find little, if any, use:
- Hang up the phone. Hang up your smart phone might be understood to put the phone in something in your car so you can use it while driving?
- Off Hook – What in the world is a ‘Hook’ for a phone?
- Dial Tone – Huh?
- Extension – Of what?
- Princess Phone – I an only imagine
- Wall Phone – More confusion
- Phone Booth – Are there any these days?
- Pay Phone – Something you do with a credit card
- Dial a number – As in Rotary Dial?
- Operator – As I asking a real/live person for assistance?
- Reverse the Charges or Calling Collect
- Party Line
- Phones available only in Black
- Flashing the Switch Hook
Part of getting old is being able to look back at all the things that ‘newbies’ never heard of and can’t understand. Yes, there are advantages of getting older!
Here’s another example of something old becoming new again…Podcasts. It’s presently the rage in Radio. iHeartMedia has just debuted the ‘iHeart Podcast Channel’, an AM Radio Station that will be running hour long shows (oops, Podcasts). I have to wonder if one of the AM’s in the Seattle area that are presently in the cellar in terms of ratings will jump on this bandwagon? Imagine listening to a radio PROGRAM on the radio? For those of us that grew up listening to radio programs, yes, before TV. This is wonderful. Wonder what Jim French would say?
Content designed for kids are hitting the Podcast Market. I can just hear the Cisco Kid, Lone Ranger, Sky King, The Shadow, etc. reaching the ears of kids, enabling them to enjoy creating their own pictures as I did when I was young.
The FCC has issued their budget request for 2020…and its 1% less than 2019. The President is sure to frustrate Broadcasters and Wireless Carriers as he is asking for Spectrum Fees on top of the regulatory fees they already collect. This will be interesting.
Some time ago, readers of my Column may recall that I mentioned how hard it would be for a person to learn our language, because certain words have so many meanings and uses. In that case, I used an example of the word ‘UP’. I’ll admit I had great fun in doing so and received a number of comments.
Well, another word has crept into my head. This time the word “LINE”. Here are some examples that come to mind where we use this word:
- Air LINES
- Bus LINES
- Shipping LINES
- Railroad LINES
- Short LINES
- Clothes LINES
- Power LINES
- LINES of Credit
- Fishing LINES
- Property LINES
- Red LINES (Used by political leaders)
- Pipe LINES
- Main LINES
- Branch LINES
- Side LINES
- Telephone LINES
- Party LINES
- Blank LINES
- LINES in Music (ala Bass Lines)
- LINES of code (as in computers)
- LINE as in falsehood – (Don’t feed me that Line)
- LINES in performing arts
- Off LINE – (as in not being on the Internet or in proximity to a computer)
- On LINE – (As in being on the Internet)
- Transmission LINES – (Use in Power and Radio Frequencies)
- LINES (as wrinkles)
- Growth LINES (as in trees)
- LINE drive (as in Baseball)
- Blue LINE (as in Hockey)
- Yard LINES (as in football)
- LINE of scrimmage
- Foul LINES (as in many sports)
- In LINE (as in compliance or conformance)
- Out of LINE (as in non-compliance or non-conformance)
- Scan LINES (as in Television)
- Front LINES (as in warfare)
- Family LINES (as in lineage)
- Noble LINE
- LINE of a drug (a method of consumption)
- LINES of Authority
- Production/Assembly LINE
- LINES of Authority
- LINES of latitude or longitude
- Contour LINES (used in topographic maps)
- Straight LINES (as opposed to those that curve or arc)
- LINES (as in a class of merchandise or services
- To LINE ones pocket (as in money)
Wonder how many you can think of that I did not mention?
Any wonder why English is so confusing ?
The following was sent to me by an old friend. Nothing like some good, old fashioned, advice….
- MAKE SURE YOUR FENCES ARE KEPT HORSE-HIGH, PIG-TIGHT, AND BULL-STRONG.
- KEEP SKUNKS, BANKERS, LAWYERS, AND CAR SALESMEN AT A HEALTHY DISTANCE.
- LIFE IS MUCH SIMPLER WHEN YOU PLOW AROUND THE STUMPS.
- BUMBLE BEES, WASPS, AND YELLOW JACKETS ARE MUCH FASTER THAN YOUR JOHN DEERE TRACTOR.
- THE WORDS THAT SOAK INTO YOUR EARS ARE USUALLY WHISPERED, NOT YELLED.
- FORGIVE YOUR ENEMIES; IT REALLY MESSES UP THEIR HEADS.
- WHEN YOU WALLOW WITH PIGS, YOU CAN EXPECT TO GET DIRTY.
- THE BEST SERMONS ARE LIVED, NOT PREACHED.
- MOST OF THE STUFF FOLKS WORRY ABOUT AIN’T EVER GOIN’ TO HAPPEN ANYWAY.
- IF YOU FIND YOURSELF IN A HOLE, THE FIRST THING TO DO IS STOP DIGGIN’.
That’s about it for this month, my friends. Thanks for the read.
Lord willing, I will be back to most of the same locations next month at this time.
Until then, may you have a wonderful Spring!!
Clay, K7CR, CPBE
SBE Member for over 50 years, #714